Age: Kidney cancer is usually diagnosed in people who are between 50 and 70 years old.
Gender: Men develop kidney cancer at 2 - 3 times more than women.
Race: African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives are higher risk populations for kidney cancer.
Smoking: Smoking cigarettes doubles one’s risk for developing kidney cancer.
Medications: Overuse of certain painkillers containing Phenacetin, which was banned in the Unites States in 1983, has been linked to transitional cell carcinoma. Diuretics, analgesic pain medication such as aspirin or acetaminophen and ibuprofen also have been linked to kidney cancer.
Exposure: Working with certain substances found in batteries, paints or welding materials, and exposure to the metallic element cadmium may increase this risk for kidney cancer.
Family history: Certain hereditary conditions or syndromes have an increased risk.
Medical history: People with chronic kidney disease, but not yet on dialysis, may be at a higher risk. People with advanced kidney disease and on long term dialysis may develop cancerous cysts in their kidneys. If they are found early, they can often be removed successfully before any cancer has spread.
Weight: Very obese people are at a higher risk of developing renal cell carcinoma, possibly due to a change in certain hormones that is associated with the disease.